Avadain’s prototyping has demonstrated patented graphene technology which reliably produces large, thin and very few defect graphene flakes using a batch process.


  • X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is one of the most promising tools to characterize the material
  • Signal of graphitic layer stacking almost gone after expansion
  • Strong indication for a high exfoliation efficiency


Each peak on the spectra line tells us something about the material.  Starting on the left, the small peak, called the D peak, refers to how many defects are in the material.  The Company 2 flakes have a lot of defects, which can be seen by the large peak. The Avadain flakes have very few defects, which is shown by how small the peak is.

RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY: Ratio of the D to the G Peak Area

The D peak in Raman spectra is an indication of defects in the material. The ratio of its intensity compared to the intensity of the graphite/graphene G peak indicates the defect density. Below are histograms of the D/G ratio of µ-Raman mappings.


Raman spectroscopy: 2D band symmetry

Raman spectroscopy of the 2D band can be used as a measure for the layer number. The higher the symmetry of the 2D band (assessed by the “coefficient of determination” of a single-peak-fitting), the thinner the flakes.

For more technical information:
Click Here to review US Patent #10,662,537